Contingency management theory
Contingency management (cm), often called motivational incentives, is a type of behavioral therapy rooted in the basis of operant conditioning this type of treatment provides rewards for the desired behaviors such as clean drug tests at times, disciplinary measures or withholding of privileges may. The contingency approach to management is grounded in fielder's contingency theory of leadership effectiveness the theory argues that a manager's effectiveness is based upon the interplay of task. A look at the contingency theory contingency theories put forth the idea that the success of a leader hinges on the specific situation at hand certain factors come into play that define whether a particular leader or leadership style will be effective for the given situation.
The contingency approach to management is based on the idea that there is no one best way to manage and that to be effective, planning, organizing, leading, and controlling must be tailored to the particular circumstances faced by an organization. Contingency management (cm), the systematic reinforcement of desired behaviors and the withholding of reinforcement or punishment of undesired behaviors, is an effective strategy in the treatment of alcohol and other drug (aod) use disorders. The contingency theory states that a leader’s relations impact their effectiveness, which is the basis of these two theories (leadership, nd) in transactional leadership, a leader’s ability to influence followers with rewards and punishments for behavior to ensure member goals is the basis of the style (leadership, nd. Contingency theory: an overview of its use in management contingency theory is one of the many theories that help to shape managerial practice, define the way that managers make decisions, and form solutions to problems.
An example of the contingency approach is in business management when a manager deals with challenges as they arise by assigning tasks to employees with relevant skills. Scientific management theory at the turn of the 20th century when the potential of science to improve productivity was becoming abundantly clear, frederick taylor developed the scientific, or classical, management theory. A study of 106 methadone-maintained patients carried out by poling et al (2) evaluated 4 treatment conditions: contingency management and placebo, contingency management and bupropion, 300 mg/d, voucher control and placebo, and voucher control and bupropion. The contingency approach is a management theory that suggests the most appropriate style of management is dependent on the context of the situation and that adopting a single, rigid style is inefficient in the long term. The six theories of management are classical management, scientific management, bureaucracy, human relations, contingency and system theories all of these different theories evolved during the 19th and 20th centuries, and describe different perspectives about how management can be formulated the.
In 1967, fiedler introduced his theory of leadership effectiveness this was the first leadership theory to measure the interaction between the leader’s personality and the leader’s situational control in predicting leadership performance. And other early management theories, and then move on to more modern approaches the scientific approach taylor was the founder of the scientific approach to management, which focused on contingency perspective founded in the 1960’s,. Discussion fiedler's contingency theory is a qualification or type of contingency theory contingency theories in general state that the effectiveness of leadership depends upon the situation, and there are numerous factors, such as the nature of the task, leader's personality, and make-up of the group being led. Modern management theory: quantitative, system and contingency approaches to management the modern period (1960 to present) after, 1960 management thought has been turning somewhat away from the extreme human relations ideas particularly regarding the direct relation between morale and productivity. Contingency management is a highly effective treatment for substance use and related disorders however, few psychiatrists are familiar with this intervention or its application to a range of patient behaviours.
Contingency management theory
Contingency management theory is based on the view that alcohol and drug use is a behavior that is influenced by neurological and environmental factors the theory is that destructive substance use can be changed by offering consistent environmental consequences or alternatives that reinforce more positive, healthy behavior changes. Contingency management (cm) treatments are based upon a simple behavioral principle -- if a behavior is reinforced or rewarded, it is more likely to occur in the future these behavioral principles are used in everyday life for example, parents use allowances or dessert to encourage their children. Contingency approach to management is based on the theory that there is no one best way of managing, as organisations face contingency variables due to individual differences, environmental uncertainty, technology used for routineness of tasks and organisational size which affects its structure. Application of contingency theory to human services management contingency theory attempts to relate research on many management variables, for example, research on professionalism and centralized decision making or worker education and task complexity.
- Contingency theory has influenced organization theory since the 1950s project management research has only recently started to consider context factors in this area, applications of contingency theory still represent a fragmented field with a nonuniform use of terminology.
- Contingency theory is similar to situational theory in that there is an assumption of no simple one right way the main difference is that situational theory tends to focus more on the behaviors that the leader should adopt, given situational factors (often about follower behavior), whereas contingency theory takes a broader view that includes.
Contingency approach to management is considered as a leading branch of management thought today limitations of contingency theory: despite the best that contingency theory offers to the management thought, it is not free from criticism. Contingency theory focused on the nature of the mission, the structure of the system, the human factors and technology, it was argued that the structure of an organization would be swayed by certain variables (linstead, fulop & lilley 2009. Contingency theory of leadership emphasizes that effectiveness of leadership is dependent on matching a leader’s style to right situation this theory was originally developed by fiedler after studying various leaders in different contexts, but predominantly military.